output file: A file opened in either output or extend
output mode: The state of a file after a program opens
it with the OUTPUT or EXTEND phrase, and before the program closes it
without the REEL or UNIT phrase.
output procedure: A set of statements that receives
control during the execution of a SORT statement after the sort
function ends. Also, a set of statements that receives control during
the execution of a MERGE statement after the merge function has
selected the next record in merged order.
padding character: An alphanumeric character used to
fill the unused character positions in a physical record.
page: A vertical division of a report representing a
physical separation of report data, the separation being based on
internal reporting requirements and/or external characteristics of the
page body: The part of the logical page in which lines
can be written and/or spaced.
page footing: A report group that is presented at the
end of a logical page as determined by the Report Writer Control System.
page heading: A report group that is presented at the
beginning of a logical page as determined by the Report Writer Control
phrase: An ordered set of one or more consecutive
COBOL character-strings that forms part of a clause or
pointer: A place marker that identifies the record
address of a storage segment.
prime record key: A key that uniquely identifies a
record in an indexed file.
printable group: A report group that contains at least
one print line.
printable item: A data item, the extent and contents
of which are specified by an elementary report entry. This elementary
report entry contains a COLUMN NUMBER clause, a PICTURE clause, and a
SOURCE, SUM, or VALUE clause.
procedure: A paragraph (or section) or group of
logically successive paragraphs (or sections) in the Procedure Division.
procedure-name: A user-defined word that names a
paragraph or section in the Procedure Division. It consists of a
paragraph-name (which can be qualified), or a section-name.
pseudo-text: A sequence of text words, comment lines,
or the separator space in a source program, bounded by, but not
including, pseudo-text delimiters.
pseudo-text delimiter: Two contiguous equal sign (=)
characters that delimit pseudo-text.
punctuation character: A character from the following set:
|.||period (full stop)|
qualified data-name: An identifier that consists of
one data-name followed by one or more OF (or IN) phrases containing
random access: An access mode in which the
program-specified value of a key data item identifies the logical
record in a relative or indexed file.
record: See logical record.
record access stream: See access stream.
record area: A storage area allocated to process the
sequential, relative, and indexed record described in a record
description entry in the File Section.
record key: A key whose contents identify a record in
an indexed file. Within an indexed file, record key is either the prime
record key or an alternate record key.
reference format: A standard way to describe
COBOL source programs.
reference-modifier: A syntactically correct
combination of character strings and separators that defines a unique
data item; it includes a delimiting left parenthesis separator, the
leftmost character position, a colon separator, optionally a length,
and a delimiting right parenthesis separator.
relation: See relational operator.
relation character: A character from the following set:
relational operator: In a relation condition, the reserved words used to compare the values of two operands. Valid relational operators are as follows:
IS [NOT] GREATER THAN
IS [NOT] >
|Greater or not greater than|
IS [NOT] LESS THAN
IS [NOT] <
|Less or not less than|
IS [NOT] EQUAL TO
IS [NOT] =
|Equal or not equal to|
IS GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO
|Greater than or equal to|
IS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO
|Less than or equal to|
relative file: A file with relative organization.
relative key: A key whose contents identify a logical
record in a relative file.
relative organization: The permanent logical file
structure in which each record is uniquely identified by positive
integer value. The integer value specifies the record's logical ordinal
position in the file.
repeating group: A group data item whose description
contains an OCCURS clause. Also, a group data item subordinate to a
data item whose description contains an OCCURS clause.
report clause: A clause in the Report Section of the
Data Division that appears in a report description entry or a report
group description entry.
report description entry: An entry in the Report
Section of the Data Division that is composed of the level indicator
RD, followed by a report-name, followed by a set of report clauses, as
report file: An output file whose file description
entry contains a REPORT clause. The contents of a report file consist
of records that are written under control of the Report Writer Control
report footing: A report group that is presented only
at the end of a report.
report group: In the Report Section of the Data
Division, a 01 level-number entry and its subordinate entries.
report group description entry: An entry in the Report
Section of the Data Division that is composed of the level-number 01,
an optional data-name, a TYPE clause, and an optional set of report
report heading: A report group that is presented only
at the beginning of a report.
report line: A division of a report group representing
one row of horizontal character positions. Each character position of a
report line is aligned horizontally by the COLUMN clause of the report
group description entry. Report lines are numbered from 1, by 1,
starting at the top of the logical page.
Report Section: The section of the Data Division that
contains one or more report description entries and their associated
report group description entries.
Report Writer Control System (RWCS): A run-time
control system that produces a report according to the specifications
in a program's Report Section.
Report Writer logical record: A record that consists
of the Report Writer print line and associated control information
necessary for the vertical positioning of the report line.
resource: A facility or service controlled by the
operating system that can be used by an executing program.
retrieval lock: An integrity lock that prevents a
record from being changed in any way by a concurrent run unit. A
concurrent run unit can only read a record that has a retrieval lock.
run unit: One or more object programs linked to form
an executable image.
RWCS: See Report Writer Control System.
screen description entry: An entry in the Screen
Section of the Data Division that is composed of a level number
followed by a screen-name, if required, and then followed by a set of
screen clauses, as required.
SCREEN SECTION: A Data Division section. The Screen
Section contains screen description entries, which describe video forms.
section: A set of zero, one, or more paragraphs or
entries (called a section body) that follows a section header. Each
section consists of the section header and related section body.
segmented key: A record key or alternate record key
with up to eight segments, each of which is a data-name of (1) an
alphanumeric or numeric item, (2) a group item, or (3) an unsigned
numeric display item.
sequential access: An access mode in which logical
records are obtained from or placed into a file in consecutive
sequence. The order in which records were written to the file
determines the predecessor-successor logical record sequence.
sequential file: A file with sequential organization.
sequential organization: The permanent logical file
structure in which a record is identified by a predecessor-successor
relationship established when it is placed into the file.
shareable image: An image that has all of its internal
references resolved, but which must be linked with one or more object
modules to produce an executable image. A shareable image file can be
used to contain a library of routines. A shareable image can be used by
the system manager to create a global section.
sort file: A collection of records to be sorted by a
SORT statement. The sort file is created and can be used only by the
sort key: A data item that identifies the location of
a record, or a set of data items that serves to identify the ordering
sort-merge file description entry: An entry in the
File Section that consists of the level indicator SD, followed by: (1)
a file-name, and (2) a set of file clauses, as required.
source item: An identifier designated by a SOURCE
clause that provides the value of a printable item.
special character: A character from the set:
|-||minus sign (hyphen)|
|,||comma (decimal point)|
|.||period (decimal point, full stop)|
|>||greater than symbol|
|<||less than symbol|
standard arithmetic: A mode of arithmetic in which the
techniques used in handling arithmetic expressions, arithmetic
statements, the SUM clause, and certain integer and numeric functions
are specified in the draft International Standard.
Standard Data Format: A method of describing data as
if the data appears on a printed page of infinite length and breadth.
It does not relate to the way that data is stored internally or on an
standard intermediate data item: A temporary decimal
floating-point data item used to hold arithmetic operands when standard
arithmetic is in effect.
statement: In the Procedure Division, a syntactically
valid combination of words and symbols that begins with a verb.
subject of entry: An operand or reserved word that
appears immediately after the level indicator or level-number in a Data
subprogram: See called program.
subscript: An integer whose value identifies a table element.
A subscript can be the word ALL when the subscripted identifier is an
argument to an intrinsic function. (The function must allow a variable
number of arguments in this argument position. See Chapter 7.)
ALL, or generic, subscripting is the use of the word ALL to specify all
elements in one or more dimensions of a table.
subscripted data-name: An identifier that consists of
a data-name followed by one or more subscripts enclosed in parentheses.
sum counter: A signed numeric data item established by
a SUM clause in the Report Section of the Data Division. The sum
counter is used by the Report Writer Control System to contain the
result of designated summing operations that take place during
production of a report.
system image: The image that is read into memory from
disk when the system is started up.
table: A set of logically consecutive data items
defined with an OCCURS clause in the Data Division.
table element: A data item that belongs to the set of
repeated items comprising a table.
terminal operator: The individual who, at run time,
enters data in response to program prompts.
top margin: An empty area that precedes the page body.
unary operator: A plus (+) or a minus (-) sign that
precedes a variable or left parenthesis in an arithmetic expression. It
has the effect of multiplying the expression by +1 or -1.
unsuccessful execution: The attempted execution of a
statement that does not result in the execution of all its operations.
The unsuccessful execution of a statement does not affect any data
referenced by that statement. However, it can affect status indicators.
update lock: An integrity lock that prevents a record
from being used in any way in a concurrent run unit.
variable: A data item whose value can be changed by
program execution. A variable used in an arithmetic expression must be
a numeric elementary item.
variable-length record: A record associated with a
file whose file description or sort-merge description entry permits
records to contain a varying number of character positions.
variable occurrence data item: A table element that is
repeated a variable number of times. It must contain an OCCURS
DEPENDING ON clause in its data description entry or be subordinate to
an item that does.
word: A character-string of not more than 31
characters that forms a user-defined word, a system-name, a reserved
word, or a function-name.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION: A Data Division section that describes Working-Storage data items. It consists of Working-Storage noncontiguous items or Working-Storage records or both.